Self-Directed Learning for the 21st century: Implications for higher education

Volume editor
Elsa Mentz
Volume editor
Josef de Beer
Volume editor
Roxanne Bailey


This book devotes itself to scholarship in the field of self-directed learning in the 21st century, with specific reference to higher education. The book’s target audience includes scholars in self-directed learning and higher education. The book contributes to the discourse on the quality of education in the 21st century. It adds to the body of scholarship regarding self-directed learning, specifically its role in higher education. Although all the chapters in the book directly address self-directed learning, the different foci and viewpoints raised make the book a rich knowledge bank of work on self-directed learning.


An electronic version of this book is freely available, thanks to the support of libraries working with Knowledge Unlatched (KU). KU is a collaborative initiative designed to make high-quality books open access for the public good. The open-access ISBN for this book is 978-1-928396-88-8. More information about the initiative can be found at and links to the Open Access version at



  • Chapter 1
    Self-directed learning: A conceptual overview
    Chantelle Bosch, Elsa Mentz, Roelien Goede
  • Chapter 2
    The impact of cooperative learning on self-directed learning
    David W Johnson, Roger T Johnson
  • Chapter 3
    Moving to deeper self-directed learning as an essential competency for the 21st century
    Sukie van Zyl, Elsa Mentz
  • Chapter 4
    The importance of context for self-directed learning
    Josef de Beer
  • Chapter 5
    In pursuit of accomplished teacher development through praxis in a South African distance learning programme
    Corné Kruger
  • Chapter 6
    Towards a multiliteracies framework in support of self-directed learning through open educational resources
    Jako Olivier
  • Chapter 7
    A systematic review of research on the use of technology-supported cooperative learning to enhance self-directed learning
    Elsa Mentz, Roxanne Bailey
  • Chapter 8
    A teaching–learning framework for adaptive instruction using cooperative learning and Socratic questioning to promote self-directed learning: A systematic literature review
    Dorothy Laubscher, Roxanne Bailey, Per B Bergamin, Christo van der Westhuizen
  • Chapter 9
    Developing self-directed learning skills of geography student teachers through online problem-based learning designs
    Christo van der Westhuizen, Aubrey Golightly
  • Chapter 10
    Constructive congruencies in self-directed learning and entrepreneurship education
    Adri du Toit
  • Chapter 11
    Participative assessment practices and its contribution to the development of self-directed learning skills
    Anitia Lubbe, Elsa Mentz


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