Functional fitness for adults living with Down syndrome

Pieter-Henk Boer


The purpose of this book is to provide a group of adults living with intellectual disability (ID), specifically Down syndrome (DS), their own unique instrument to assess functional fitness. Previously, individuals living with DS were pooled with individuals living with ID without DS, even though various academics and researchers have demonstrated that the presence of DS negatively affects test performance. The need arose because many adults living with Down syndrome have poor functional ability, live sedentary lives and are overweight or obese. Consequently, their quality of life decreases dramatically, especially when they reach old age. This scholarly book provides an economical and field-based list of test items that can be used to assess, evaluate and monitor functional fitness. The target audience includes specialists in the disciplines of Sport Science, Psychological Education, and Health Sciences. The book aims to contribute to the scientific discourse reflecting on the functional limitations seen in adults living with Down syndrome.


  • Chapter 1
    What is Functional Fitness?
  • Chapter 2
    Conceptual framework: The functional fitness battery of test items
  • Chapter 3
    Test feasibility, reliability, validity and percentile norms
  • Chapter 4
    Test administration
  • Chapter 5
    Test results
  • Chapter 6
    Exercise recommendations and complete case study for adults living with Down syndrome


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